Treatments & Procedures

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

Coronary artery bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical procedure that is performed to treat the narrowed arteries that supply blood to the heart. This procedure bypasses the blocked arteries thereby increasing the blood flow to the heart muscle.

Mitral and Aortic Valve Repair and Replacement

  • Mitral valve. This valve is located between the upper left chamber (left atrium) and the lower left chamber (left ventricle).  It has two flaps or leaflets and a complex supporting apparatus attached to the internal wall of the left ventricle
  • Aortic valve. This valve is located between the lower left chamber (left ventricle) and the aorta, which is the big blood vessel through which red (oxygenated) blood from the left heart passes to the body.  It has three flaps or leaflets
  • Tricuspid valve (also called the right atrioventricular valve). This is located between the right upper chamber (right atrium) and right lower chamber (right ventricle).  It has three flaps/leaflets
  • Pulmonary valve. This valve is located between the right lower chamber (right ventricle)and the pulmonary artery.  It has three flaps/leaflets and controls blood flow into the lungs through the pulmonary artery

Surgical Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

Aortic aneurysm is the ballooning out of the wall of the aorta, the biggest blood vessel of the body. This blood vessel comes directly from the heart, from where it carries blood to other parts of the body. The balloon-like configuration is a result of the weakening of all the layers of its wall. Treatment is either medical (taking of medications to possibly slow down increase in size) or surgical (involves repair of the walls of the blood vessel).

Complex Aortic Surgery

Complex aortic surgery encompasses a number of different operations that are used for people who have poor blood flow to their intestines, kidneys or to their lower extremities. Complex aortic surgery is done when there are aneurysms involving parts of the aorta that can't be fixed by other minimally invasive means. That's when more complicated operations are required.


Video-Assisted Thorascopic Surgery (VATS) is a less painful way of viewing and taking a sample of an abnormal tissue in the lungs that uses a tiny scope with camera (thoracoscope) and transmits images in a monitor. This procedure is used to diagnose and treat an infection or disease in the lungs. There is no need to make a large incision in the chest and recovery is faster than other lung surgeries.

Lung Biopsy

A lung biopsy is suggested by Dr Orr if an abnormal tissue growth or an unusual lung condition is suspected. The process involves taking a small sample of a lung tissue and study it under the microscope to identify the actual problem. There are 4 different ways of taking a small piece of the lung tissue depending on the location from where the sample is taken and the overall condition of a person's health.


Pleurodesis is a procedure where a mildly irritant drug is introduced into the space between the inner wall of the chest and the outer lining of the lung (pleural space). This is done to prevent the recurrence of a lung collapse (pneumothorax) or accumulation of air or fluid in the space (pleural effusion).


Thymectomy is the removal of the thymus, a gland which is part of the body’s immune system located in front of the heart, behind the breast bone and in between the lungs responsible for fighting foreign substance. It is known that this gland also contributes to the development of muscle weakness (myasthenia gravis) although it has no effect to the immune system when removed.

Pleural Biopsy

A pleural biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of the membrane that surrounds the lungs called the pleural tissue, is extracted with a special biopsy needle or during surgery, examined under a microscope and sent for cultures.


Defibrillation is a life-saving technique in which an electronic device, called defibrillator, gives an electric shock to the heart to help restore normal contraction rhythms in the heart to counter onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF), a common cause of cardiac arrest, and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, which sometimes happens before ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest and is also a lethal as VF.


The heart is a hollow muscular pump that propels blood to the different parts of the body and is controlled by electrical signals generated within the heart itself. A number of heart conditions such as bradycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, heart failure and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can disrupt these signals and cause an abnormal heart beat, which may be too slow, fast or irregular and can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath and fainting.

Lung Resection

Lung resection is the surgical removal of all or part of the lung, because of lung cancer or other lung disease.

Mediastinal Biopsy

The mediastinum is the space present between the lungs. Abnormal growth of lymph nodes or other tissue in this region may be investigated by performing a biopsy. A biopsy is the process of obtaining a sample of tissue for laboratory examination. Mediastinal masses or lymph nodes may be biopsied with the help of a biopsy needle or a lighted tube called a mediastinoscope.

Lung Surgery

Lung surgery is employed for the repair or removal of diseased lung tissue. There are different types of lung surgeries that can be performed, depending on the nature of the disease

  • The Children's Hospital at Westmead
  • Heart Centre for Children- The Children's Hospital at Westmead
  • Sydney Children's Hospital Randwick
  • Westmead Hospital
  • Westmead Private Hospital
  • Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
  • International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation
  • Sydney Adventist Hospital
  • Healing Little Hearts